Appendix: Chapter Four

It has been estimated that there are more than five hundred English translations of the Bible. Translations are often classified on a scale from formal or “word for word” equivalence to functional (also known as dynamic) or “thought for thought” equivalence. For demonstration purposes, here are several different translations of Ezekiel 23:20, from most formal to most functional.

“For she doted upon their paramours, whose flesh is as the flesh of asses, and whose issue is like the issue of horses.” (King James Version)

“There she lusted after her lovers, whose genitals were like those of donkeys and whose emission was like that of horses.” (New International Version)

“She lusted after lovers with genitals as large as a donkey’s and emissions like those of a horse.” (New Living Translation)

“There she had longed for her lovers. Their private parts seemed as big as those of donkeys. And their flow of semen appeared to be as much as that of horses.” (New International Reader’s Version)

“She was filled with lust for oversexed men who had all the lustfulness of donkeys or stallions” (Good News Translation)

“She wanted men who behaved like animals in their sexual desire.” (New Century Version)

“She eagerly wanted to go to bed with Egyptian men, who were famous for their sexual powers.” (Contemporary English Version)

“That whetted her appetite for more virile, vulgar, and violent lovers--stallions obsessive in their lust.” (The Message)


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IN THE BEGINNING WAS THE WORD: An overview of Bible translation to promote the TNIV


BIBLE GATEWAY - search multiple translations

20th AND 21st CENTURY TRANSLATIONS - index of Wikipedia entries for more than thirty translations

THE ENGLISH VERSIONS OF SCRIPTURE - an exhaustive analysis by an amateur scholar

BIBLE TRANSLATION COMPARISON - style and readability of popular translations

2008 Daniel Radosh    Design: Pat Broderick     Programming: Kevin Shay